The purpose of this paper is to present the changes occurred during the transition period in the role and place of agriculture in the Romanian economy. The main methodological instruments used are the national Input-Output Tables for 1999-2004 published in the National Accounts. We have also used figures from the Regional Accounts to put into evidence regional differences in total GDP and the GDP of agriculture. Input-Output analysis is an analytical tool recognized as one of the most significant contributions to the economic theory and applications, but rarely used in agricultural economics for quantifying the structural changes of the economic activities. The first part of the paper presents the general equilibrium situation of the Romanian economy and the interrelations among different sectors for 1999-2004. Based on the Input-Output models we have analyzed the main changes occurred in the position of agriculture compared to other economic activities. We have also put into evidence some regional differences concerning the agricultural sector development.