The paper focuses on improvement in access to the natural resources land and water to bridge the economic divide in South African agriculture. The relevance of the approach to bridging the economic divide, progress made since 1994 in land and water reform and problems experienced and strategies to overcome them are discussed. Challenges imposed by climate change and biodiversity on the effective utilization of land and water resources are also highlighted. Given the broadness of the subject, an overview of some important issues can only be attempted within the allocated time. The presentation starts with background information to place the discussion in context within the national framework and to define certain concepts. Conceptual issues regarding access to natural resources are then presented to serve as an analytical framework for the subsequent discussions on access to land and water, climate change and biodiversity. The presentation concludes by integrating the foregoing discussions and highlighting some challenges for agricultural economists.