U.S. soybean producers have been cooperatively investing in both production research and demand promotion for nearly four decades to enhance the profitability and international competitiveness of their industry. Have producers benefitted from their contributions to soybean checkoff program activities over the years? How has the return to investments in soybean production research compared to that of soybean demand promotion investments? The overall positive returns to producers over the study period resulted primarily from promotion activities. Production research contributed negatively to overall producer returns from soybean checkoff investments.