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Abstract

An understanding of the empirical relationship between income and environmental quality is evolving through recent studies investigating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). The EKC represents an inverted-U relationship between income and environmental degradation. However, studies may employ different methods, evaluate different environmental indicators, and use different data, resulting in a broad spectrum of findings and leading to sometimes conflicting interpretations. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the results of existing EKC findings by conducting a statistical meta-analysis, and to predict new income turning points (ITP). Results indicate how both methodological choices and pollutant types affect ITPs.

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