The aim of the study was to assess competitiveness on the global cereal market in view of changes in production, export and import on the market in the years 1998-2017. As a source, data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used. The study assesses: trends involving changes in production, export and import, trends in the percentage share of the largest cereal producers, exporters and importers, and the evaluation of competitiveness of exporters. The top twenty cereal producers and exporters worldwide were analysed. In the period under examination, China, the United States and India remained the largest producers of cereals. In recent years, Russia and the Ukraine have significantly increased their share in production. Russia, the Ukraine and Brazil joined leading cereal exporters, next to the United States. The period in question is characterised by a strong concentration of countries producing and exporting cereal, and by an increase in export orientation among 20 largest cereal exporters on global markets. Poland, compared to other grain exporting countries, does not play a significant role, however, after the country’s accession to the European Union, its gradually improving.