The study aimed to assess the investment potential of the rural communes of Wielkopolska Province in 2009-2017 and compare it with other administrative types of communes. Additionally, among all the rural communes a separate group located in the Metropolitan Area of Poznań (MAP) was distinguished. The study drew on data from the Local Data Bank maintained by the Central Statistical Office and on the database of indicators assessing the financial condition of local administrative units published by the Ministry of Finance. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the level of investment potential between communes, and dynamic statistics to measure changes in the phenomenon over time. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between the investment potential of communes and the actual level of their investment expenditures. The investment potential of the Wielkopolska Province was found highest among rural communes of the Metropolitan Area of Poznań, which inflated its average levels for all rural communes. The observed course of potential – its decline up until 2013 and subsequent growth – was related to EU budget perspectives 2007-2013 and 2014-2020. Moreover, the relationship between investment potential and investment expenditures was statistically significant only in urban and metropolitan rural communes.