HIGHLIGHTS -Fish consumption in Nigeria is higher in the richer South than the poorer North. -Fish consumption is surprisingly similar in urban and rural areas, controlling for the region. Rural fish consumption (as well as that of the North in general) is heavily skewed toward traditional forms (dried, smoked) and somewhat less frozen/imported. -Fish consumption is found to be relatively expenditure inelastic (compared with poultry and milk), thus signaling “perception as necessity” by consumers. -Among fish forms, traditional forms such as dried and smoked fish tend to be income inelastic while the modern frozen fish form is income elastic. -Currently imported frozen fish prices are much higher than fresh domestic fish or the fresh equivalent price of dried fish. This creates opportunities for domestic fish production to compete with imports.