The purpose of this paper was to classify FADN macroregions in the European Union into types by production potential of farms specializing in cow milk production in 2008 and 2017. The production of cow milk is one of the most important branches of animal production both in Poland and other European Union countries, therefore it is the subject of numerous publications. Most often, cow milk production is the subject of research in global terms, European Union countries or regional diversity in Poland. Relatively rarely does the subject of milk production cover a regional approach throughout the European Union. Due to dynamic changes in factors affecting milk production and, in particular, the abolition of the cow milk production quota system in EU countries in 2015, it is important to continue to monitor changes in the milk market, especially on the supply side. Hellwig’s method was employed in the calculation of the synthetic indicator of production potential for each macroregion in order to determine types. The study demonstrated that the most advantageous characteristics of the production potential of milk farms, in both years covered, were mostly reported by EU-15 macroregions located in western and northern Europe. Macroregions of new member countries, except Slovakia, were less competitive in terms of their potential. As demonstrated by this analysis, development disparities persist between milk farms located in different EU macroregions.