The aim of the article is to present the effectiveness of innovative activity of enterprises from the agri-food sector in the Podlaskie Voivodship. One of the priorities indicated in the Europe 2020 strategy is intelligent development based on a knowledge and an innovation-based economy. The strategy clearly emphasizes the need to increase expenditure on research and development throughout the European Union. Knowledge and innovation are key drivers of economic development. These aspects are particularly important in regions with a low level of industry development, significantly increasing the effectiveness of the local economy. Innovation is associated with the introduction of new products and the improvement of products, services or technologies. Analysis was based on literature on subject and primary data. The research results lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of enterprises implement product innovation, and the scale of innovation concerns the domestic market. The stimulator of innovation development is the amount of expenditure on research and development as well as the level of competence of the management staff. Unfortunately, research shows that, between 2014 and 2016, the amount of expenditure on research and development in the Podlaskie Voivodship was at a relatively low level. Internal expenditure amounted to PLN 261.5 million, which put the voivodship in 17th position.