The aim of this study is to investigate how the level of food safety and quality in Poland has changed after European Union accession. Poland’s accession to EU structures resulted in a number of economic, market and environmental changes. One of the most important areas of these changes is the food production and consumer supply sector. The conducted research is based on the results of controls performed by the main food control institutions in Poland. Research covers the areas of food quality and scale of irregularities revealed by control institutions, leading to changes in the level of food safety in terms of the health threats and economic security of consumers resulting from food falsification. Studies have shown that in the post-accession period, significant and multidirectional changes in the above-mentioned scope have taken place. Despite the proven presence of food with improper sanitary conditions, the Polish consumer is unlikely to be concerned about this. The situation is much worse in terms of economic security and food quality. The scale of irregularities in this respect is significant, and as the last years of the analyzed period show (after 2015), the phenomenon of decreasing food quality and even food falsification is growing.