The aim of the article was to compare the resource conditions and efficiency of cereal and oil plant production in individual EU member states and assess changes over the analyzed decade 2007- 2016. This implementation was used to construct three indicators regarding resource conditions, which are the relation of land and labor (area of agricultural land/labor input AWU), capital and land (value of fixed assets/area of agricultural land), and capital and labor (value of fixed assets/labor input AWU). In turn, production efficiency was determined using the following indicators: the ratio of production and land (value of production/area of agricultural land), production and labor (value of production/labor input AWU) and production and capital (value of production/value of fixed assets). The above indicators were developed for the years 2007-2009, 2010-2013 and 2014-2016, and then the position in ranking and distance from the model for each country were determined using the Hellwig method. The research used data from the Accounting Data Network from Agricultural Holdings. The obtained results indicate a high level of convergence between the resources owned by agricultural holdings and production results achieved. There was also a significant difference between the development of individual resource and efficiency indicators in favor of producers from the so-called “old Union”, towards countries that joined the EU after 2004. However, comparing the results achieved in individual periods, it can be concluded that this disproportion was diminishing.