This monograph has been prepared under the Multi-Annual Programme 2015-2019 “The Polish and the EU agricultures 2020+. Challenges, chances, threats, proposals”. It contains the selected papers which were presented during the conference organized by IAFE-NRI in the days of 22-24 June 2016 in Jachranka, Poland. The purpose of the publication is to present to the reader the main issues associated with shaping the social policy in the context of competitiveness of agriculture and the food economy at the national and global levels. The publication particularly aims to present problems of the social and economic policy from many viewpoints, taking into account its relations to both measures of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU and the general global situation. Chapters: Changes in farm structures from a social aspect in the post-socialist EU Member States since their accession to the EU. Policy and research needs on economic, social and environmental farm performance. Economic and social context of current social policy in the Czech Republic. Productivity Growth vs. Farm Support in EU Agriculture – policy implications. Evaluation of projects from Rural Development Programme in the Czech Republic. Bulgarian Programme for Rural Development (2007-2013): socio-economic outcomes and lessons. Priorities of sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas within the region of Eastern Serbia. Economic and social aspects of Slovak agri-food sector. The Russian food embargo: impact on the national agri-food sector. Food security in Romania – determinants and vulnerabilities. Economic Assessment of Neonicotinoids’ Use Restriction on Sunfower and Maize Farms in Bulgaria and their Reaction. New Challenges for social and Development Policy – an attempt at a summary.