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MAJOR ISSUES RELATED to the enhancement of benefits from groundwater pump irrigation are resource fixity, size of investment, and costs of transaction associated with effective decisions and operations of Water Users Associations (WUAs), Sustainability of a groundwater pump irrigation system depends to a large extent on the adaptive and innovative capacity of a WUA, This paper outlines the process of adaptation and innovation of WU As in responding to resource fixity. size, and costs of transaction based upon a case study of groundwater pump irrigation systems in East Java, Indonesia. Based upon organization performance such as pump working hours, areal utilization index, and WUA' s savings and revenue, the adaptation and innovation capacity of the WUAs were evaluated and classified, The process of adaptation and innovation is analyzed with reference to crop selection and diversification, water price fixation and pricing procedures, increase of savings, management of external agents and structural changes. On the whole, this research concludes that learning capability of WU As to recognize the problems, and to find and execute alternative solutions is one of the most important factors pertaining to the sustainability of groundwater pump irrigation.


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