PROSHIKA MANOBIK UNNAYAN KENDRA, a nongovernment rural development organization in Bangladesh, initiated its irrigation program based on groundwater in 1980. The projects are being implemented by landless and marginal farmer groups. The major objectives of these projects are to establish rights on groundwater resources, to develop a sustainable alternative project management system in the irrigation sector, to create a bargaining situation between the landless and landlord farmers, to transfer ownership of the irrigation equipment to the target groups and to promote irrigation project management by women groups as a significant and prospective counterpart in groundwater development. To achieve these objectives in particular, and to ensure the attainment of the goal of rural development in general, Proshika endeavors sustainable groundwater management through rural target groups. Attempts made to realize the objectives outlined above are diverse in nature. This paper focuses on some specific interventions by Proshika with reference to two case studies; i.e., (i) where beneficiaries have adopted management innovations successfully in Bastail-a village in Tangail District, and (ii) where the target group has failed to manage the tubewell in Baoni-a village in Gazipur District.