The objective of this work is to investigate, comparatively, family agroindustries in Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) and Italy (Tuscany), in order to perceive their differences in relation to the central aspects of their processes of social and economic reproduction. In this sense, indicators were evaluated on the origin of agroindustries, processed products, markets and marketing channels built, public support policies and programs, as well as agri-food legislation governing the production, distribution and consumption of food. The methodology used was qualitative research, through the application of fourteen semi-structured interviews. Qualitative and quantitative data and information from various secondary sources were also used. The results and conclusions point to interesting differences between the two regional realities, such as the: different agrifood qualification strategies, the way in which markets are socially constructed and the possibilities of social actors to generate innovations in agroindustries and the environment institutional context in which they are embededdness.