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This paper examines whether protectionist tendencies, in terms of both policy preferences and policy actions, in 'Northern' countries-looking in particular at the United States - seem to be an obstacle to the integration into the world economy of small, vulnerable 'Southern' countries. The paper makes three related points. First, current trade barriers in the North appear to cost Southern countries billions of dollars annually. Second, although some WTO-governed trade barriers in the North are declining, it appears that there is an increasing US resistance to further globalization via trade, investment, and immigration liberalization. Third, the paper speculates about what forces might be driving this rising Northern resistance to further liberalization, and what this resistance may imply for the integration prospects of small, vulnerable economies


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