Changes in seasonal weather cycles, a growing number of extreme phenomena, an upward trend in temperature and changes in the distribution of rainfall, significantly affect the functioning and effectiveness of agriculture. However, agriculture plays a major role in the emergence and intensification of these phenomena. The aim of the article is to present, analyse and evaluate the relations between agriculture and climate, with particular emphasis on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture in these relations. A cause-and-effect analysis was conducted based on literature studies, using the descriptive statistics method and analysis of the development trend. The basis for analysis were data on GHG emissions in the European Union (EU-28). The contribution of agriculture to the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions, albeit slightly but still increasing in recent years. The level of this emission is determined primarily by the type of agricultural activity conducted – animal production is definitely responsible for higher emissions than plant production. It is difficult to present a universal model of agricultural adaptation to climate change and a set of actions limiting the negative impact of agricultural production on climate. This is hindered by both the specificity of the agricultural sector and the large diversity of local conditions and applied farming practices. The opportunity to increase the effectiveness of actions taken may be a better connection between the implementation of objectives including the reduction of the causes and negative consequences of climate change and the objectives of sustainable agricultural development.