Research on sectoral employment is an important part of economic investigation devoted to structural change, traditionally referred to when describing economic growth. At the same time, agricultural employment has been traditionally studied as an important feature characterizing rural economies. The main aim of the paper is to investigate agricultural employment transformation in France from the beginning of the twentieth century. Specific objectives include the presentation of changes in agricultural employment in France as well as their main determinants. A theoretical concept of the three sectors by Colin Clark, Jean Fourastié and Allan Fisher was referred to. It can be concluded that France is now in the “completion phase”, with the service sector dominating the employment structure. However, the French economy never experienced a real period of industrial predominance specified in the three-sector theory. Current issues in agricultural employment in France include the ageing of farmers, newcomers (already related to agriculture by their family or outsiders), increasing involvement of women as well as flows between sectors (agriculture is not a lifelong profession any more).