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This paper investigates several factors that may be important for improving Māori outcomes, and the extent to which their importance varies by iwi. Specifically, it examines the extent to which controlling for differences in characteristics of the European population and the populations of various iwi can account for the differences in income distribution between the groups. It finds that qualification levels are important—they account for an average of approximately 29% of the difference between iwi and European incomes. The differing age distributions and the proportions of the population with different work and labour force statuses also account for much of the difference. Residence in different types of urban or rural area appears less relevant, as does residence in different regional council areas. The sizes of the influences of the different factors vary considerably by iwi and sometimes by gender. This suggests that policies aimed at improving Māori incomes may be more cost-effective if they target specific iwi.


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