Participation in the 1984-85 Milk Diversion Program (MDP) is examined through the analysis of aggregate state level data for the U.S. and county level data from New York. Linear probability, logit and probit models of participation are estimated. The empirical results are highly similar across models and identify the important determinants of farmer participation in the MDP. Models explaining contracted diversion levels are also estimated but do not have the explanatory power of the participation models. The implications of the results for the analysis of U.S. dairy policy alternatives are discussed.