Challenges that are placed in front of banks have put changes towards business conditions, in terms, of increasing and reducing avaliable funds, have forced its management toward changing its business philosophy as well as the establishment of a new concept, which could respond to those challenges. For this reason, during the 80’s a concept of simultaneous managenemt of assets and liabilities has been developed, which is also known, in terms of banking terminology, under the shortcut ALM (Assets and Liabilities Management). A Bank, whose goals are success and competitiveness on the market, has to accept the development of the ALM approach as necessity or inevitable part of business. In accoradance with it, the success of the bank, in many cases will depend on the implementing quality of the ALM process. In order to evaluate the success of that activity, the bank, however, have to be familiar with the essence of the ALM concept, along with the basic criteria on which this evaluation is done. The goal of this paper is to present the essence of this concept and the criterias, which are the starting point during its evaluation.