This paper outlines the complex historical legacy and structural adjustment efforts in Mozambique in addition to reviewing recent economic developments. An in-depth analysis of new and more reliable national accounts data show that macroeconomic stabilisation has occurred through recovery from a suppressed outset. Yet, easy import substitution has now been used up, and structural transformation on the export side remains to be addressed. Moreover, a coherent development strategy geared towards poverty reduction is still to be implemented. The government budget also remains problematic, and aid dependency continues. Accordingly, fundamental development challenges lie ahead.