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Price risk management in the grain industry is typically done by hedging with forward contracts and futures contracts. An additional important price discovery and risk management “paper market” also exists in the form of CIF NOLA basis bids, traded through brokers. These bids function similar to traditional forward contracts, however, like a futures market, firms can offset their forward contractual obligations by offsetting positions in a liquid off-exchange paper market. Analysis shows that this liquidity mostly removes the pricing bias commonly found in forward contracting in corn and soybeans, although a small bias still exists in wheat and especially sorghum.


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