The topic of EPF sustainability has gained considerable attentions among the governments worldwide. In the wake of growing elderly population, improving life expectancy and declining mortality rate particularly in Malaysia over the years, concerns arise on the EPF’s failure to fully commit the retirement incomes provision to the elderly population in the post-retirement periods. Specifically, this paper examines the short run and long run relationships between EPF balances and its determinants; investment earnings, nominal income, elderly population, life expectancy and mortality rate from 1960 to 2014. Of the findings, elderly population and mortality rate are unfolded to represent key deterrents of EPF balances, which acts as the proxy for the EPF sustainability, both in the short run and long run cycles. Thus, new improvements to the existing EPF scheme are recommended as means to alleviate the poverty problems among the elderly population besides addressing other economic and social fronts.