Competition for land and scarce capital resources within island economies requires that fish culture operations oriented toward small farmers be labor intensive. The use of simple culture systems or agricultural by-products and manures as feedstuffs, and integration with other farming activities is most appropriate for part time farmers or those with small land holdings. The livelihoods of artisinal fishermen, the seagoing analogues of small farmers, are threatened by declining productivity of the shallow water reeffish fishery combined with escalations in fuel and other operating costs. Enforceable reef management strategies, the introduction of new working and coastal aquaculture projects can revitalize the local fisheries. A farmer-oriented approach to aquaculture research and development in the region as well as a continuous and comprehensive review of the biotechnical, socio-economic, and political factors important in the transfer of aquaculture technology is necessary for effective project implementation. In addition, island governments must actively display the political will which gives priority to small farmer development


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