The western part of China has a long history and reputation of growing a variety of quality melons largely due to its semi arid agronomic environment. In the past decade, the industry suffered from the interrelated issues of unreliable quality and intense price competition. Even though both the government and supply chain stakeholders are aware of the problems, there is a need to look at the issues from a supply chain perspective and new ways of managing the melon supply chains are to be explored. This paper analysed the melon supply chain in western China in the areas of logistical efficiency and supply chain relationship management. The results of the analysis offer insights for improving the efficiency of the melon supply chain and the competitiveness the industry. The results also shed lights for other supply chains of fresh produce in developing countries in general.