The objective of this research was to determine the role of the Polish family farms as active entities of the bioeconomy sector, which eliminates the negative effects of production on the environment. Farms seems to be those entities, that for a long time practise these assumptions by a close relationship with nature, working with living organisms, etc. The condition of the continuation of their business is getting a positive family farm income and keeping the profitable production. The study was based on FADN data and calculations were made according to the criterion of economic size and production type in Poland on the background of the EU average in the years 2004-2013. Studies have shown, that in Poland the medium and large farms, regardless of the type of production, have the best conditions for the conducting of the bioeconomy.