Environment, in which we have come to live, undergoes unceasing degradation. We observe growing output of fossil fuels, which are not among inexhaustible energy sources, thus contributing to the increase in the volume of greenhouse gases. The main objective of the European Union, as well as Poland, in energy policy is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One solution is the use of zero-emission renewable energy (OZE). At present renewable energy is based on biomass resources. The main stock of agricultural biomass used in the power industry is the straw derived from the cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. The aim of the study was to estimate the technical potential of cereal and oilseed crops straw. The theoretical potential of straw was calculated based on data from the National Agricultural Census of 2010. Assessment of the theoretical and technical potential of straw allows to obtain information about the opportunities to ensure the energy needs for the local district. The technical potential of straw was calculated taking into account the reuse of straw in agriculture (litter, feed, straw incorporation). The total straw surplus from cereals, which can be used for energy purposes amounted to 12,7 million tons. Significant quantities of straw for energy purposes can be designed in the local districts with the dominance of large farms. The factors limiting the size of rapeseed production are: the quality of soil (about 33% of the poor soils), ground frost especially in the north-eastern parts of the country and a large share of small farms in south-eastern Poland. The technical potential of straw from oilseed crops available for energy purposes is approximately 295 thousand tons. The total technical potential of straw in Poland – 12 959 thousand tons. The author showed environmental effects calculated as the amount of carbon dioxide which is not emitted into the air.