With 5 rice varieties (Yifeng 3321, Yifeng 3315, Yifeng 3317, Yifeng 45, Yifeng 14-24) as the experimental objects, the aseptic seedling method was used to culture the rice seeds, and the HPLC was used to determine the content of amino acids in aseptic rice seedlings as well as the total content of 8 kinds of essential amino acids and the content of protein. And the content of protein and amino acids in the polished rice of 5 varieties was detected, and the analysis of variance was performed for screening of the varieties containing high essential amino acids. The rice with high essential amino acids could be produced to meet people's rice quality requirements. The analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences (F=39.262, p=0.01) in the content of essential amino acids among 5 kinds of rice varieties. By the Duncan's multiple comparison, the differences among rice varieties were calculated to obtain screening results. The aseptic seedlings: Yifeng 3321 (7.268), Yifeng 3315 (6.395), Yifeng 3317 (5.698), Yifeng 45 (5.567), Yifeng 14-24 (5.190). Rice: Yifeng 3321 (2.998), Yifeng 14-24 (2.627), Yifeng 3317 (2.611), Yifeng 3315 (2.503), Yifeng 45 (2.281). Based on the estimated human daily requirement of essential amino acids and amino acids requirement pattern, it was found that the polished rice of 5 varieties was up to standard. The variety with the highest content of essential amino acids was Yifeng 3317 (3830 mg/100g), followed by Yifeng 3321 (3770 mg/100 g). The results showed that the high quality rice variety in this experiment was Yifeng 3321.