The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of the use of input-output balances to determine the interdependence of branch based on selected indicators: profitability and labour consumption of agri-food sector in the countries of the European Union in the years 1995, 2000 and 2007. The primary research method was a method of input-output. The main test materials were input-output balances for individual countries of the European Union, which was calculated on the basis of profitability and labour consumption in the food industry. Input-output model allows for in-depth analysis of the macro-economy and is an important instrument for the evaluation and interpretation of economic phenomena. It also allows you to carry out comprehensive evaluations of basic economic relationships that characterise the structure of the studied phenomena occurring between them and interdependences, also in comparisons, in dynamic and international system. In developed countries, mainly in the EU-15 the presented dependencies are at a lower level than in the new Member States.