The aim of the article was an attempt to assess the relations between production factors and production effectiveness in Polish agriculture. According to the task two synthetic measures were constructed. The first one refers to the relations between factors of production, and the other to their productivity. The obtained values were used to determine the relation between agricultural production factors and production effectiveness using correlation coefficient and regression model. The study is based on data from Agricultural Census 2010 and refers to Polish voivodeships. The results indicate a significant correlation between the efficiency of production and the relations between factors of production.