The aim of the paper was to present the situation of the main cereals' producers in EU in 1991-2014. Cereals area, yields and production volume, as well as production structures and policy implications of the production were analysed. The results show that the production in the EU was increasing in the discussed period. At the same time the market intervention level decreased and the sector underwent the processes of concentration. Despite of the structural positive changes, both the structure and productivity of the cereals-producing farms situated in central European countries has stayed disadvantageous compared to UE15. More favourable production structures, thus higher productivity of EU15 farms, will determine their market competitiveness. However, the countries with lower yields may also increase their production, taking into consideration the expected price rise and growing demand for cereals.