The discussion, academic research and reflection on policy analysis is focused on the role of the agricultural and agri-food related activities in regard to sustainable development and economic growth. The food sector behaviour is crucial for quality of life in any region and, at the same time, agri-related activities are also responsible for a substantial impact on nature in regard to environmental issues and human activities. It is also true that agricultural activities and food production chains are main players and crucial elements for a sustainable growth process and quality of life in any region. Trade and international relations can and should be a tremendous opportunity for growth, but economic growth and development with a sustainable environment and quality of life objectives are important challenges, where freedom of choice of individual and collective actions need to be preserved and enhanced. Food sovereignty and food security are recent concepts to be taken into consideration, explored and revisited in regard to models that can provide “benchmarks” to evaluate performances and provide insights for better policies in the future. Environmental and economic objectives can be convergent and work together, and good examples should be provided, mainly in regard to the development challenges the world is facing. Greater responsibilities are obvious for the main and bigger economies, developed and developing countries, but also at local level. No one can be excluded from the huge scope of challenges the planet and the society will be facing in the nearest future. Global and local perspectives are essential, and food security/food sovereignty analysis is a first step, under the general concern, for a sustainable development process, where freedom of choice and quality of life are clear objectives to be achieved, as strongly as possible.