Based on the discussion of the income from non-agricultural activities and its importance for the Brazilian rural population, this study analyzes: (i) the determinants of pluriactivity and non-agricultural activities in rural households; and (ii) the impact of non-agricultural activities in the income of rural households. Analyses are based on pooled data from the National Household Survey from 2001 to 2013, period that is characterized invesby remarkable changes in the economy and rural society. Results highlight that the odds of having a non agricultural activity depends both on endogenous characteristics, such as the presence of a son/daughter in adult age and education of the responsible for the household, as exogenous factors, such as the proximity of the household from urban areas and geographic region. Despite considerable improvements in employment and income from agricultural activities in the 2000s, the share of families performing exclusively agricultural activities remained reducing in rural Brazil. This dynamic would be justified, in part, by the income of non-agricultural activities, which is greater than that of exclusively agricultural families and grew faster in the period, contributing to the enhancement income disparities in rural areas.