Massive expansion in educational programmes has been reported for Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries in recent years. Yet, the economic role of education in agriculture – the main source of livelihood for the majority of SSA population is still debatable. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how formal education affects smallholder crop production systems in Africa. The analysis uses 1997/98 farm management survey data on 60 randomly selected rural households from Botswana. It is concluded from the results that education has a positive and significant effect on crop incomes of smallholder traditional farmers. Therefore, continuing investments in education among SSA countries are important and warrant supportive government action to improve the lives of millions of peasant farmers in SSA.