An important approach to reducing persistent technical inefficiency is through technical change. This paper considers the case of genetically modified crop production. A stochastic frontier approach is used to examine how a drastic change from non-GM to GM technology effects the position of the production frontier as well as the extent and nature of technical inefficiency. A one-step method is applied to consider firm-level effects on technical inefficiency. Using soybean production from the U.S. we find that GM technology improves productivity and reduces technical inefficiency though these effects vary across farm characteristics.