In the years 2000-2007, positive changes relating to the equipment of rural areas of Poland were noted, both with respect to selected elements of technical infrastructure and to fixed assets. An existing disproportion between particular groups of households and cities is still visible. The assessment of the issues related to health condition of the rural population is very complex, as it includes not only hygiene, medical treatment, prevention and nutrition, but also questions related to culture and living and working conditions in rural areas. Such factors as individual resistance and genetic predispositions of individuals must not be left out either. It seems that at present the most important issue is the pro-health education of the rural communities. This results from the fact that more and more the health condition and health predispositions of the society are conditioned upon the general social and economic development, which translates to the educational achievements of the society. Properly organised healthcare system offering successful treatment and encouraging disease prevention may contribute to the improvement in the state of health and the elongation of life span of rural population.