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Abstract

This paper has analysed data on WWOOF in Japan, and shown how WWOOF activities in Japan have the potential to and are facilitating new social development. This new social development is fourfold. First, in opportunities for new organic food produce markets. Second, that it is social development with a nationwide reach. Third, that it constitutes bottom-up social development, thereby requiring no cost to or dependence on government. Forth, that it constitutes reciprocated voluntary support between disparate groups of people, including that between rural and urban populations of all age groups, involving no monetary exchange.

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