The Upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma has been the subject of extensive research since the 1930s and is also a participating watershed in the long-term USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) effort. Much of the research has focused on developing and testing computer models and tools to simulate the impacts of agricultural management practices on soil and water resources. While a substantial portion of these research efforts have focused on the environmental impacts of management practices, economic considerations are now receiving greater attention since funding agencies are better appreciating the link between farm economics and producer adoption of the conservation practices. This paper contributes to a better understanding of how resource conservation benefits of limited available funds can be maximized by optimal distribution of the practices based on publicly available spatial distributions of the biophysical attributes of agricultural lands. We specifically determine optimal conservation practice distributions for two sub-basins of the Upper Washita River basin: the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) and the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW).