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Abstract

We develop an extended Nominal Rate of Assistance (NRA) methodology to disentangle policy welfare impacts for various interest groups along the value chain (to disaggregate effects within the “producer” and “consumer” umbrellas). We apply our value chain NRA methodology to Pakistan’s price and trade policy. We analyse the welfare implications for various agents in the wheat-flour value chain from 2000 to 2013, a period characterized by major global price volatility and by regular adjustments of domestic policies. We find that the wheat price policy has generally benefitted flour consumers and wheat traders at the expense of wheat farmers and to a lesser extent flour millers. Our findings illustrate that the welfare implications of policies can be quite different within the “producer” and “consumer” umbrellas, which has potentially important implications for economic and political economy analyses and for the design of policies aimed at targeting the poorest groups along value chains.

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