This research analyzed the technological dynamics of the sugarcane agroindustry in the Midwest region in Brazil, through technological capabilities matrix. Primary data were collected from plants and distilleries by means of questionnaires (the results were: 100% of units in Mato Grosso State, 54.5%, in Mato Grosso do Sul and 50%, in Goiás). As a corollary, it was observed that the sugarcane agroindustries from the three states dominate a great part of technological capabilities in basic and intermediate gradation. However, regarding advanced gradation, the lowest percentages of occurrences were observed in the three states mentioned before. Therefore, it is necessary that the agroindustry allocates its efforts to improve R&D, which will facilitate the creation of new technologies. Overall, it was found that Goiás presented the highest technical concentration, standing out in relation to Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul in several profiles of the technological capabilities matrix.