Productivity, technology and efficiency drive agricultural growth through research. The total factor productivity (TFP) being increase in rate of growth of output over the rate of growth of inputs, its decline is a major concern and policy priority in the context of sustainable food production. This paper examines the wheat TFP in India during 2001-02 to 2010-11 across regions. The TFP determinants were discussed in terms of technological progress and technical efficiency. Inputs usage barring human labor and animal power, was intensive and registered positive growth. The mean TFP declined by 1 per cent. The slowdown is attributed to decline in the technological progress by 1.1 per cent despite a marginal increase in the efficiency by 0.1 per cent. The capital intensive new sciences need to be harnessed for breaking yield barriers. Higher allocation of funds to research and extension is needed for technological progress and efficiency gains.