In Romania, after the breakdown of the communist regime, collective farms were replaced by a large number of small-scale private farms. Although cooperation seems to be a favorable choice for these smallholders, it did not develop so far. This paper explores the factors that determine the intention formation of Romanian fruit and vegetable farmers to join marketing cooperatives in the form of so-called Producer Groups. Our theoretical framework refers to Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior, modelled by a Structural Equation Model. Intention formation is mainly influenced by expectations for better prices and easier access to capital. Perceived family support is another significant factor while confidence in own capabilities and resource endowment do not seem to play an important role. The level of distrust is generally high, but not significant as a driver of the intention to cooperate in PGs.