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This study explores the impact of water users' associations (WUAs) on farmers' productivity in Punjab province of Pakistan. We find that the presence of WUAs provide a productivity gain of ten and eight percent for farmers at the tail end of watercourses and those that rely solely on groundwater. The productivity impact of WUAs on farmers that rely more on groundwater suggests that improving the management of surface water through functioning watercourse level institutions can be a viable option in reducing over-utilization of groundwater resources and the pressure it creates on the already strained energy situation in the country. However, we find no evidence of WUAs improving productivity for those at the head and middle of watercourses, indicating that the performance of WUAs is likely to face challenges from these groups.


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