This paper assesses the relationship between the family labor organization in the extractive activity and the involvement in public policy programs in Sergipe State. The research was predominantly carried out through a qualitative approach with women self-appointed as mangaba gatherers and “marisqueiras”. This is a relevant segment to the “traditional people and communities” affiliated to the closed season insurance of artisanal fishermen (SDPA), the family grant program (PBF), and the Brazilian food acquisition program (PAA). The research approach included observations and interviews with different social actors involved in the extractive activity and public policy programs. The main findings show that public policies programs: i) influence the reorganization of everyday work in the extractive activity, especially concerning the reduction of the participation of young people and children in the activity and the intensity of working hours; ii) strengthen the traditional roles of men and women in the PBF and dilute the frontiers between these roles through the PAA program; iii) decreases the workload through the SDPA program and increases it in the PAA; and iv) affect the different significances attributed to labor.