This paper discusses trends in and patterns of trade in agricultural and food products in Central Asia. The analysis shows that these products’ exports lose and imports increase its importance for all economies of Central Asia. Trade policies with regards to agricultural and food products vary greatly in the region from very liberal to quite protectionist. No correlation is observed between the type of trade regime and performance of agricultural production and trade. The paper also provides an overview of the recent changes in trade policies including those related to the creation of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russian Federation and their potential impact on agricultural and food trade in the region.