[Paper in French] The European public policy in favor of the biodiesel consumption is highly debated. Available estimates of the induced land use changes conclude that this policy is inefficient to reduce emissions of GreenHouse Gas. We show that the crop yield evolutions in these estimates are significantly lower than the observed and expected evolutions. This difference is directly related to biased calibration choice of behavioral parameters. We show using the GTAP-BIO framework that a consistent calibration of these parameters leads to a strong reduction (by around 80% in the long run) of the land use changes and induced emissions.