The paper examines the selection mechanism of technology and the extent of technology transfer in the Bangladesh fertilizer industry. The entire supply of production process and machinery and equipment have so far been imported. There are only a few established companies in the world which have acquired the knowledge of the complex production process and machinery in this industry. These companies, mainly from developed countries, control this knowledge in an oligopoly form. The study also observes that there is a connection between the source of production process and machinery on the one hand and the source of foreign aid on the other. In an aid-dependent development situation, as in Bangladesh, there has hardly been any effective transfer of technology in the industry. Local participation in plant design is nil and that in plant erection and supervision of plant construction or fabrication of plant structure is very low or negligible The paper stresses the need for a systematic and conscious national policy to this effect.