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Abstract

El objetivo fue estudiar el consumo de diferentes cortes y tipos de carnes por los hogares uruguayos en la última década del siglo XX y primera del siglo XXI. Se utilizaron las dos últimas encuestas de gastos e ingresos de hogares aplicando un procedimiento bietápico a un sistema incompleto de demanda con ecuaciones censuradas. El estudio involucró trece productos cárnicos: seis de carne bovina, uno de ovina, uno de porcina, uno de aviar, uno de pescados y mariscos y tres productos cárnicos genéricos. Se computaron elasticidades ingreso y precio con un intervalo de confianza 90%. Los resultados verificaron una disminución en el consumo de todas las carnes, particularmente de la bovina, entre ambos períodos. No obstante, éstas continúan siendo un elemento preponderante en la dieta hogareña. La carne aviar mejoró sustancialmente su consumo relativo aunque los fiambres y embutidos consolidaron su preferencia. Entre las bovinas, se destacó la carne picada. El ingreso y tamaño de los hogares mostraron un efecto positivo sobre la probabilidad de consumo de casi todas las carnes, las que se comportaron siempre como bienes necesarios (η < 1) y normales (ε < 0). En general, todas se mostraron inelásticas frente al ingreso y reaccionaron en forma diferencial frente a cambios en su precio. The objective of this research was to study the consumption of different cuts and types of meat by Uruguayan households in the last decade of the XX century and the first decade of XXI century. It involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the two last national household income and expenditure surveys. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six beef products, four from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of shor tterm income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported with 90% confidence interval. The comparison between the two periods verified a decrease in the consumption of all meats, particularly beef. However, they continue being a dominant factor in household diets. Poultry meat substantially improved its relative consumption although cold cut meats and sausages consolidated as the most preferred among all meat products. The consumption of ground beef excelled among bovine cuts. Income level and household size showed a positive effect on the probability of spending on almost any meat. All meat items were necessary goods (η < 1) exhibiting income-inelastic responses. All of them behaved also as normal goods (ε < 0) although showing different responses to price changes.

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