Energy is intricately related to agricultural production. Plants capture solar energy and convert it into food, energy, and other products useful for mankind. Agriculture is potentially a source of not only food, feed, and fibre, but also of energy. Agriculture is also an important user of energy. Technical progress in agriculture has meant more intensive use of commercial energy in agriculture. The rapid escalation of energy prices in the 1970s has important efficiency and equity implications for agriculture. This paper reviews the relationships between energy and agriculture with agriculture as both a producer and a consumer of energy.